Bronze Age Town & Gulf Ports on the Copper Trail
Open-fire manufacturing of Copper Oxhides

Figure 7. The first Magnetic Gradiometry Study, done by archaeologists Mike Hargrave and Burley Clay early in 2006. The State Archaeologist on site, Dianna Greenlee, explained that the dark spots are metal “hits.” The large spots at the bottom are particularly interesting. She later reported some of these were “core tested,” and showed dark “midden” material or hearths. Note the interesting overlapping circles mid-photo, which were explored by university students in June of 2009 (photo by Wakefield, October, 2006).

continued from Page 4 …-terns of construction have been seen. Gibson reports that “less than 3/10 of 1% of the area of the rings has been excavated” (.3%).

The Site Design and encoded latitudes
We have found that the site latitude is usually encoded clearly in the design at Bronze Age sites. The line LC points 33° from the horizontal axis. This the latitude of Poverty Point, 33°N. The angles between the major of the site and the mounds, show many of the latitudes frequently found in megalithic sites on both sides of the Atlantic. The angle of the Causeway is 39°, the latitude of the West Azores (39°), the focus of safe return trips to the Old World. The junction of the Illinois with the Mississippi on the Copper Trail, and the Serpent Mound of Ohio are also at 39°N. Its reciprocal, 51°, is the latitude where the Belle Isle Strait joins the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is also the site latitude of Stonehenge, in England. Stonehenge had been enlarged by adding the large Sarcen Stones in its center at about 2000 BC, commemorating the discovery of the New World (Ref.3), its development probably slowed by the comet disaster of 2347 BC. This famous monument, also built in a circular design, was probably known to the builders of Poverty Point.

The angle between L-D and the axis, could be 45°, depending on just where the measurements were taken. This would add symmetry to the design, since B-C is at 45°. If not intentionally replicating this angle, it is likely that the intended angle is 43°, which shows the important Nautical Center of Americas Stonehenge, at 43°N, north of Boston. This is the largest megalithic stone monument in North America, where sailors with shiploads of copper were taught how to sail back to Europe (Ref.3). This is also the latitude on the Copper Trail where the Wisconsin River joins the Mississippi. The reciprocal angle of line L-C is 47°, the latitude of Cape Race, the eastern Cape of North America. The latitude of the Keweenaw copper mines is also 47°N. Other angles important to sailing the Atlantic are indicated, 45°N (Nova Scotia), 35″N (Cape Hatteras), 55°N (Hamilton Inlet), 21″N (Yucatan), 15″N (Cape Gracias a Dios, Honduras), and 13″N (Barbados. and Mid Caribbean Islands).

Population / Food
Poverty Point was an unusual thing: a pre-historic, pre-agricultural manufacturing town, made possible by the immense biological richness of the area. Habitation areas have been identified around the site, especially on the north side, covering more than a square mile, though Gibson states “only a handful have received more than passing attention.” Sixty encampments encircling the core complex are known. No descendants can be traced to any historic tribe or group, despite estimates that many thousands of people were living here, who did not depend upon agriculture, over a thousand year period. Fruits, acorns, pecans, and other nuts were important in the diet, but the superabundant food, available all year long, was fish. Gibson writes “in the 500 square mile swamp around the Poverty Point encampments, there were between 30,000 and 1,000,000 pounds of fish per square mile!” Gibson thinks it was a hunter-gatherer town, a place of residence, a trading center. This puts Poverty Point outside the classical “Late Archaic” archaeological model of hunter-gatherer life. Ford and Webb conclude that “the ruling class probably were invaders from the north, early Hopewellian people” (Ref.49).

Artifacts / Excavations
The old ground beneath the rings was “midden veneered,” according to both Ford and Gibson, showing that people were already living or working on the ground before building started. Little pottery has been found, but numerous steatite stone bowls have been found. The steatite had to come from Michigan or the Piedmont Area. These stone bowls are 1/2″+ thick, and not practical to cook in over a fire, so cooking was done by dropping hot clay balls into the soup. Bi-conical cooking-ball fragments (called “Poverty Point Objects,” or PPO’s) “dominated the trash in the rings.” Ford calculated that “associated with small fireplaces scattered throughout the soil, were a minimum of 2200 tons, or 24,000,000 PPOs” (Ref.49). Among the engraved ones, “bird representations were most prevalent.” including the horned owl, hungry nestling, songbirds, and crow figures. Turtles, opossum, and panther also occurred, along with strange glyphs, and unique motifs. The trash also included whole and broken, and incomplete, resharpened, and recycled tools, manufacturing debris, fire-cracked rock, caches of projectile points, baked human figurines, plummets, copper beads, a copper bead-maker’s kit (copper nuggets hammered into thin sheets, for winding around the copper wire), ornaments, both finished and unfinished, and most of all, exchange rock. In fact, Gibson estimates that “over 71 tons of foreign flint occurs on the site, an astonishing amount… Millions of items were left on the ground before the rings were built; they were left in the rings while under construction and during breaks in construction; and they were left atop the rings after construction was finished.” The Ford report discusses 33 types of Archaic arrowheads over 20 pages, noting that there were thousands in… continued on Page 6